Composition and Scientific Study

Composition and Scientific Study

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Caffeine (300mg)

Caffeine as it is used in pre-workout has a number of different functions on your body's performance during a workout. Caffeine boosts your metabolism, increases your physical output, as well as promoting muscle endurance and anaerobic performance. (1)

Our pre-workout contains 300mg of caffeine the most effective quantity is around 3 to 6 milligrams caffeine per kilogram of body weight. Meaning if you weigh 150 lbs your range would be 204mg-408mg or if you weigh 200 lbs your range would be 270mg-540mg. Multiply caffeine content falls within the average range for most people. 

Caffeine does have a few things for you to be aware of as well when taken in a larger than normal quantity like this. Too much caffeine may cause nervousness, irritability, sleeplessness, and, occasionally, rapid heartbeat. Caffeine can also cause dehydration, so it is more important than normal for you to stay hydrated during workouts where you’ve consumed caffeine of any kind.

L-Theanine (300mg)

L-Theanine Is an amino acid most commonly used in pre-workout to help curb any caffeine "crash" with its counteractive effects. It is found in many different kinds of tea and helps balance two different compounds in the brain; Glutamate and GABA which are responsible for transmitting nerve impulses. This results in heightened focus, mood memory and attention. (2)

The most effective quantity of L-Theanine is to have a 1:1 ratio with caffeine. Larger quantities result in a more calming effect than what is desirable in a pre-workout. 

Beta-Alanine (1.5g)

Beta-alanine is a naturally occurring amino acid that regulates the amount of the molecule carnosine, that can be stored in the muscles. Carnosine;

  • reduces muscle acidity
  • increases muscular workload
  • reduced exercise induced fatigue
  • improved anaerobic exercise capacity
  • increase in lean mass.

The research shows that there is a wide range of effective doses of Beta-Alanine. This range can vary, at higher doses there can be some mild side effects with beta-alanine like flushing, tingling and itchiness, which are harmless and will go away after a couple of minutes.

L-Citrulline Malate (3g)

L-Citrulline Malate is an amino acid compound of L-Citrulline that has been bound with malic acid, a substance that is found in most fruits involved with the creation of cellular energy. When consumed, the L-Citrulline turns into L-Arginine in the body which is what creates the nitric oxide that widens blood vessels and improves blood flow. (4) 

The benefits of this compound are seen in many different aspects of physical performance with increased muscle endurance, improved anaerobic performance and a reduction in muscle soreness.

When L-Citrulline is used in combination with L-Arginine Hydrochloride the plasma L-Arginine levels are significantly increased boosting the efficiency of nitric oxide production by almost 2:1. 

Betaine-Anhydrous (1.5g)

Betaine is an amino acid that is found in beets as well as other foods like spinach or quinoa. Betaine has a high concentration of a molecule known as methyl group which is a core component of many of the body's physiological functions, such as DNA production, fat metabolism and cellular energy productions. 

Betaine is also an osmolyte which is a low-molecular weight organic compound that maintains the integrity of cells and helps balance fluids inside and outside of cells. 

The combination of these properties is why Betaine has been seen to improve muscle endurance and increase strength during times of physical stress (5)

Alpha-GPC (25mg) 

Alpha-Glycerophosphocholine or Alpha-GPC contains two compounds; Choline and Glycerophosphate. These two compounds work together to affect the body's physiology. 

Choline is a nutrient that is vital in brain health and function and Glycerophosphocholine helps transport choline to the brain. When taken together these compounds increase a chemical in the brain known as acetylcholine. This chemical is used in nerve communication increasing efficiency as well as brain health and function. Studies have shown even as much as reducing the effects of mild Alzhimer’s dementia.

This compound has been shown to increase growth hormone levels, increasing muscle growth and strength as well as improving cognitive functions. (6)

Very high doses are needed for it to show results in affecting dementia. 

L-Arginine Hydrochloride (1.5g) 

L-Arginine is an amino acid compound that your body creates to help regulate nitric oxide production. Nitric oxide is responsible for oxygenation of the blood, blood flow and widening your blood vessels. This provides the muscles with more oxygenated blood resulting in increased energy. (7) 

L-Arginine and nitric oxide have been found to improve heart health as well as those suffering from hypertension and diabetes indicate that it may also regulate vascular hemostasis. 

When used in combination with L-Citrulline the plasma L-Arginine levels are significantly increased boosting the efficiency of nitric oxide production by almost 2:1. 

Sodium (50mg) 

Sodium is a common ingredient often consumed daily. It is vital to many of our bodies' functions. Most people only need to consume 500 mg of salt a day. This amount is achieved naturally in most diets. We have Sodium in Multiply because it can help with water retention and hydration.

The human body needs sodium to conduct nerve impulses, contract and relax muscles, and maintain the proper balance of water and minerals. (8) 

Calcium (100mg)

Calcium is found in many foods, primarily in dairy products and leafy greens such as bokchoy. It is a part of our bodies daily vital function, it promotes healthy teeth, bones and helps muscles to contract. (9)

It is regulated with hormonal responses and stored in the bones. Daily recommended consumption is 1,000 mg. Calcium is found in Multiply as a small boost to help reach the daily recommended amount. A calcium deficiency may cause muscle weakness or cramping.

Vitamin C (450mg)

Vitamin C is often taken as a daily supplement but can be found naturally in many fruits and vegetables. Science has shown that megadosing on vitamin C can be very effective at building up a strong immune system and white blood cell counts. (10)

It is also vital in your body's ability to create collagen; a fibrous protein in connective tissue that is weaved throughout various systems in the body. Collagen is a key part of many of our bodies key functions. The daily recommended amount is only about 100 mg, the upper limit is 2,000 mg. It is important to intake vitamin C daily as it is not stored in the body. 

Vitamin B3 (16mg)

Vitamin B3 / Niacin or in our case Nicotinamide is a vitamin that is found in many foods. Its main function in the body is as a coenzyme used to build more than 400 other enzymes that regulate bodily functions. Popular belief is that Vitamin B is a source of energy but what Niacin does is actually help breakdown nutrients from food into more usable energy. So it does not function as a stimulant, but it helps maximize the energy already consumed in calories from a balanced diet. (10)

Vitamin B6 (8.5mg)

Vitamin B6 or pyridoxine is a vitamin found in low quantities in many foods we consume everyday. It functions as a coenzyme similarly to Vitamin B3 as it supports over a 100 of our body's enzyme functions. It helps breakdown proteins and carbohydrates into useful nutrients for energy as well as supports the body's immune system. (11) 

Vitamin B12 (120mcg)

Vitamin B12 is found in fish, poultry and red meat. It is vital to body function as it is needed to create new red blood cells and DNA strands. It also plays a role in the body's ability to break down and use protein. (12)

Vitamin B12 is not a stimulant but in the case of a deficiency in B12 (often seen in vegan or plant based diets) one will feel more energized when supplemented as a deficiency in B12 can result in weakness and fatigue.

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(1) Caffeine

Effect of caffeine on sport-specific endurance performance: a systematic review 

Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers

Effect of caffeine ingestion on one-repetition maximum muscular strength

The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities

(2) L-Theanine

L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses

L-theanine promotes nitric oxide production in endothelial cells through eNOS phosphorylation

Psychological effects of dietary components of tea: caffeine and L-theanine 

L-theanine and caffeine improve task switching but not intersensory attention or subjective alertness

The effects of L-theanine on alpha-band oscillatory brain activity during a visuo-spatial attention task

L-Theanine and caffeine improve target-specific attention to visual stimuli by decreasing mind wandering: a human functional magnetic resonance imaging study

(3) Beta alanine

 Influence of oral beta-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius

The biological role of carnosine and its possible applications in medicine

Beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters 

Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women

The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 Years): a double-blind randomized study

Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players

Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity

Effect of β-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity

Six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and without beta-alanine supplementation for improving cardiovascular fitness in women

Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial

Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis

Effects of β-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players

(4) L-Citrulline Malate

Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function

Vascular nitric oxide: Beyond eNOS 

Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness

Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females

Acute citrulline-malate supplementation improves maximal strength and anaerobic power in female, masters athletes tennis players

Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle

Oral L-citrulline supplementation enhances cycling time trial performance in healthy trained men: Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study

(5) Betaine-Anhydrous

The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men

Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance

(6) Alpha GPC

Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to, and peak force production during, resistance exercise 

Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Glycerophosphocholine enhances growth hormone secretion and fat oxidation in young adults

Evaluation of the effects of two doses of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on physical and psychomotor performance

(7) L arginine hydrochloride

L-arginine and cardiovascular system 

The effects on plasma L-arginine levels of combined oral L-citrulline and L-arginine supplementation in healthy males

Cardiovascular effects of L-arginine as physiological precursor of nitric oxide

(8) Sodium

Harvard nutrition on salt and sodium 

(9) Calcium

Harvard nutrition on calcium 

(10) Vitamin C

Harvard nutrition on Vitamin-C

(11) Vitamin B3

Harvard nutrition on Vitamin B3 

(12) Vitamin B6

Harvard nutrition on Vitamin B6 

(13) Vitamin B12

Harvard nutrition on Vitamin B12